Chapter 1 What is a Sentence?
The sentence is ...
We are relentless communicators. We have a passion for `reaching' people, for `connecting'. We tell one another where we, they and all the others are `at' or `coming from'. Even our refusal to speak is an act of communication: `I won't speak to you', it says. And it is understood as `This person won't speak to me'. We communicate in sentences even on this pre-speech level.
On speech level the sentence is openly with us, even when it is only a word of itself: When someone says `Milk!' a shopkeeper will understand something like `This rude slob is asking me to sell him some milk', having already understood the slob's 'Milk!' to be an economical version of `I should like some milk, please'.
There is no getting away from it: We communicate in sentences. They are to communication as oxygen is to breathing. The long and the short of it is this: When we say something, or understand what someone else has said, we make sentences whether we intend to or not. So did Neanderthal Man. The difference between his and our way was achieved in the interim that saw ever more refined structures assemble to make life easy. One of those was the prose-structure we now know as that sequence of words that raises a subject and says something about it: the sentence. We use it to transmit our passion for communicating, successfully or unsuccessfully, depending on how well we understand its capabilities.
This prose structure, our highly-refined contemporary sentence, manifests in two ways: as an independent sentence and as a dependent sentence.
The independent sentence
The sentence that raises a subject and says something about it (or 'predicates something of it') is an independent sentence. It makes a statement that makes sense and only one sense. Such a statement has only three structural models, or basic-sentence types. They are the verb sentence, the copula sentence and the copular-verb sentence.
The independent sentence is the typical written sentence. It is the one we depend on when we write an essay, an article for a periodical, or a thesis. In short, it is the sentence style we require when we write in any genre that forbids casual-speech structures.
Subject and Predicate
The sentence raises a subject and says something about it. To put it another, more formal, way: The sentence predicates something of the subject. This is all that Traditional Grammar means when it declares that the sentence consists of a subject and a predicate.
The indispensable basic sentence
No sequence of words is a sentence if it fails to make one unambiguous sense. No sequence of words makes one unambiguous sense unless it is a basic sentence or it contains one. Stripped of its basic sentence, this sequence makes no sense:
It becomes sensible only when a basic sentence holds it together:
Writers must become so familiar with the three models of the basic sentence that one `jumps out' at them from every sentence they read. Such a level of familiarity will ensure that the sentences they write will never fail to meet the first and most important criterion of valid sentence-construction: the unmistakable presence of a basic sentence. It will ensure also that they are able to punctuate the longer sentences they write.
Before you read on
In the course of reading about what sentences do, you will come upon quite a bit of 'parts of speech' vocabulary. If you are new to this, don't let it worry you. This Chapter means to make only the point that every part of a sentence does something to contribute to the sense the whole makes. Observe this, and leave concerns about the precise meaning of 'noun', 'adjective', etc. until you read the second Chapter. (You will find that these terms 'stick' to you anyway. Don't make heavy weather of it.)
Verb model of the basic sentence
In the verb model of the basic sentence there always is a specific relationship between the subject and object in a sentence. In every instance of a verb basic sentence the subject and object relate in one the following ways:
1. The subject acts upon the object.
In this sentence:
Nationalism alarms minorities,
the subject 'nationalism' perpetrates an act, denoted by the verb 'alarms', upon the object 'minorities'. Traditional Grammar says of sentences in which the subject acts upon the object that they are active voice sentences.
2. The object acts upon the subject.
In this sentence:
the object 'nationalism' acts upon the subject 'Minorities'. The verb 'alarmed' denotes this act. Traditional Grammar says of sentences in which the object acts upon the subject that they are sentences cast in the passive voice mode.
'Infinitive' complications and the complemented verb
Infinitives are the 'to'-led expressions from which we derive verbs, nouns and adjectives.
There are infinitives that consist of more than 'to' and one word: 'To set' is one infinitive, 'to set free' is quite another. Their meanings are different, just like the meanings of 'to give' and 'to give up' are different.
The several-word infinitives are the causes of structures such as 'He set me free', in which the object 'me' comes between the parts of the infinitive. These structures are otherwise ordinary active-voice verb sentences that typically also have a passive voice: 'I was set free by him'. This situation is less obvious in the infinite that seems to have a 'to make (someone) do' structure. We meet this structure regularly in statements such as:
There is no doubt that this, too, is a sentence in which the subject acts upon the object (active voice), and the object acts upon the subject (passive voice):
So 'made ... clean' is certainly a verb sentence. The curious thing in both the foregoing sentences is that at first glance, it seems that 'the house' is the object in them. But it is not: It is indisputable in the active-voice sentence above that the subject 'he' acted upon the object 'me', and not on 'the house'. So in the active-voice sequence, 'clean the house' does no more than name the direction of the activity denoted by the verb 'made'. In that sense, 'clean the house' is the complement of the verb 'made'. (More will be said later about how the active-voice sentence uses the complementing noun phrase to name the content of the verb.)
With the forced reconstruction of the active-voice 'he made me clean the house' to make the passive-voice 'I was made to clean the house by him', the object 'him' acts upon the subject 'I'. And, of course, 'to clean the house' does not act upon the subject, so it cannot be the object in this sentence. So 'to clean the house' must be deemed to be the noun phrase that complements the verbs 'made' and 'was made' by naming their content. (Traditional Grammar tends to fudge this complication by calling 'the house' an 'indirect object'. But that is illogical.) Observe the component parts of these two sentences on this grid:
3. The activity between subject and object devolves upon a third party.
As subject and object perpetrate an act upon each other, a third party is affected by the action. So in 'He read me the Riot Act', the subject 'he' perpetrated an act upon the object 'Riot Act': He read it. The 'Riot Act' is therefore the direct object of the subject's activity denoted by the verb 'read'. This subject acts also upon 'me'. So 'me' is also an object. But it is not the direct object that the subject acts upon: it is the indirect object of the subject's activity 'read'.
The passive-voice sentence of this kind has to be constructed thus:
4. The activity between subject and object is named by the predicate noun complement.
In this sentence:
the subject 'he' acts upon the object 'them'. To this extent, this sentence is of the type outlined in '1'. It differs from it markedly, however, in that the noun 'liars' is embedded into the '1' sort of structure, 'he called them', to name the content of the verb 'called'. 'Liars' is not an object in any sense. It is therefore in not possible to call it an 'indirect object'. Other sentences of the same structure are:
The subject 'the boy' perpetrated the act denoted by the verb 'taught' on the object ,'his grandmother'. The content of the subject's act is named by the noun 'Mathematics' in the first sentence, and by the infinitive-noun phrase 'to suck eggs' in the second.
5. The subject acts upon the object to procure its existential or geographical state.
In this sentences:
The film had me laughing,
the subject 'the film' acted upon the object 'me' to put it into a laughing state. The meaning here can be paraphrased as 'he had me in a laughing state'. 'In a laughing state' names the existential state of the object 'me'. The actual sentence, however, has truncated the noun phrase to 'laughing'. The truncation nevertheless functions as a noun in this sentence, as the paraphrasing indicates that it must. It is a noun embedded into the basic sentence 'he had me'. In another sentence:
an embedded noun phrase with the same function, 'in the front row', is kept in entirety to name the whereabouts of the object 'me'. It, too, is embedded into the verb basic sentence.
6. The subject acts upon the object such that only the object is the experiencer of the act.
In this sentence:
the subject 'John' certainly perpetrates an act upon the object 'Mary'. But only the object 'Mary' experiences the effect of that act. The subject 'John' may not even be aware that he has perpetrated that act. This situation exits because there are verbs that are inherently object-experiencer verbs. These are: annoy, irritate, amaze, provoke, impress, interest. Some of their synonyms might also prove to be object-experiencer verbs in some constructions.
In their passive-voce forms, these verbs yield the lone subject-experiencer. Again, as above, the object-perpetrator of the act denoted by the verb may not even be aware of having perpetrated it upon the subject:
The 'subject + verb' sentence as the basic sentence
Where the basic sentence is a verb + subject sentence, nothing is predicated of the subject other than that the subject does, has done or will do something:
Mary has taught.
The Prime Minister will resign.
The only other thing that can happen in the verb + subject sentence is that certain indicators describe the subject's act. Those indicators are adverbs. They describe:
She arrived early;
The girl answered slowly;
The girl came begging for mercy;
We could hardly see.
We can describe sentence structure!
It has been claimed, thanks to the 'subject + predicate' sentence, that describing sentence structure is a sham. The claimants argued that Traditional Grammar holds that 'Mother is cooking' and 'Dinner is cooking' are sentences of the same syntactic structure. If Traditional Grammar's system of analysis were constrained to do that, it would indeed be a sham. But it is not so constrained. The sentence 'Mother is cooking' (Mother is doing the cooking) is a 'verb + subject' sentence. 'Dinner is cooking is a copula sentence in which the predicate adjective 'cooking' describes the subject 'dinner' ('the cooking dinner'). Confirmation of this is available upon our grasping the nature of the copula sentence. We shall proceed to do this immediately:
Copula model of the basic sentence
The copula model of the basic sentence makes a statement in which the copula (a formation that derives from the infinitive 'to be': am, was, is, are, were, be, been, shall, will) assigns the subject either a description or a definition or a location (geographical or existential) or an occupier. In behaving thus, the copula basic sentence is completely different from the verb basic sentence. It has to be different because there is no relationship of subject and object in it. Indeed, the copula sentence does not have an object. It has instead a complement.
1. The copula assigns a description to the subject
In the sentences that follow, the copula has the complement describe the subject. A description that occurs in this way is called a predicate adjective if it is achieved by a single word, and predicate-adjective phrase if it is achieved by a sequence of words. In the sentence:
the copula assigns the description 'ill' (or 'annoying' or 'pleased') to the subject 'John'. Such assigned description are predicate adjective. In the next sentence:
the copula 'might have been' assigns the description 'as bad as you say' to the subject 'walking to school'. So 'as bad as you say' is a predicate adjective:
2. The copula assigns a definition to the subject
This activity of the copula has the complement define the subject. In:
the copula 'is' defines the subject 'practice' in terms of the noun phrase 'what you need'. In the next sentence:
the copula phrase 'has always been' has the complement 'all I have ever asked' define the subject 'To know that you are well'.
3. The copula assigns a place in space to the subject.
In this role, the copula has the complement name the location of the subject. In so doing, it names the place that, geographically speaking, the subject occupies (or did or will occupy). The complement in such sentences names a geographic location (which is necessarily a place). It is therefore a locative noun phrase when it names a place ('John was in London/at the party'), and a locative pronoun when it refers to a place ('John was here/there').
4. The copula assigns a place in existential space to the subject.
In this role, the copula has the complement tell us where the subject is on a spiritual, ethical, moral, professional, etc. plane. In:
the subject 'he' is located by the copula 'is' in some spiritual (or ethical or moral) space that is named by the noun phrase 'beyond recall'. In the sentence:
the subject 'they' is located by the copula 'were' in the spiritual space named by the noun phrase 'in mourning'. In the sentence:
the subject 'she' is located by the copula phrase 'had been' in her professional space, named by the noun phrase 'on duty'.
5. The copula effects the occupation of the vacant subjects 'it' and 'that'.
When the copula sentence does not name a subject but erects a token one instead ('It', `That', 'What') the erection is a vacant one yet to be filled with the naming capacity (a noun or noun phrase) of the complement. The copula directs that this filling, or occupying, take place. Thus in the sentence:
the copula 'is' directs the noun phrase 'that he is happy' to occupy the vacant subject 'It'. This occupation is evident in that the noun phrase can sensibly take the place of the subject:
The subjects 'It' and 'That' are not always vacant subjects.
The vacant subject should not be confused with 'It' subjects that are not vacant. In this sentence, 'It' represents the subject raised in an earlier sentence:
In this sentence 'That' represents the sense 'the person you saw who was not me':
No adverb in a copula sentence
The important characteristic of the the copula sentence is that it cannot contain an adverb. This is no more than logical, for adverbs modify verbs, and the copula sentence does not contain a verb, for the simple reason that it is a copula sentence, not a verb sentence. Now, it might seem that this copula sentence:
contains the adverb 'really'. But it does not, for 'really' modifies the predicate adjective 'ill'. Modifying an adjective, a word cannot be said to be functioning as an adverb. Rather, 'really' is itself an adjective. It has exactly the same function as 'very', or any other degree/intensity-setting qualifier of an adjective: He is very/dangerously/etc. ill. (For some reason that is not at all easy to identify, Traditional Grammar tends to call these qualifiers 'adverbs of degree'. We suggest that 'adjectives of degree' shows by far the better syntactic insight.)
Critics of the observation that there is no adverb in a copula sentence have proposed that sentences such as:
refute that observation. These critics rely on the erroneous assumption that 'really' is by nature an adverb. Well, it is not, as we noted in the sentence 'He is really ill'. Just as in that sentence 'really' pertains to the predicate adjective 'ill', so in the above sentences 'really' pertains to the noun 'John'. And, pertaining to a noun, it is necessarily an adjective. 'Is' in these sentences effects the occupation by the complement 'really John' of the vacant subject 'It'. (The semantic template is obviously not 'the is-ing John'; it is 'the really John'.)
Copular-verb model of the basic sentence
The copular verb looks like a verb, and, like the verb, it denotes an activity. But otherwise, it behaves like a copula because it does not have an object. In the copular-verb sentence, the subject does not act upon the object, for it has no object; it has a complement. (A subject acts upon the object only when the sentence is a verb sentence.)
No verb is copular by nature. This is a fact, despite the common delusion that some are. Rather, a verb is copular when it has a complement that determines something about the activity it denotes. A picture of those determining complements follows:
1. The complement locates the place of the subject's act.
In the sentence:
there is no object: Rather, the subject's act 'rested' is located by the noun-phrase complement 'in bed'. Simply, 'in bed' names the place where the subject 'he' performed the act denoted by the copular verb 'rested'. Some other place-namer functions of the complement are illuminated on this grid:
2. The complement identifies the existential character of the subject's act
Whether the existential character of the subject's act is named prosaically:
it is a fact that the complement specifies the character of the subject's act by naming its identity. The identity of 'left' in the foregoing sentences is the 'in a hurray' or 'in high dudgeon' version of the act denoted by 'left'. Other identity-namers of the act denoted by 'left' might be 'in a leisurely manner', 'without regret', etc. These identity-namers of the subject's act are nouns for the simple reason that they name. (A further discussion of why they are not properly classified as adverbs occurs in the Chapter `The Parts of Speech', under the heading `Noun Case'.)
3. The complement identifies the direction of the subject's act.
When the copular verb itself identifies its own character, as in this sentence:
its orientation (or 'direction' or 'bent') is further identified by a noun-phrase complement. The same reasoning informs the analysis of the sentence 'He talked of morality'. The subject's act, denoted by the copular verb 'talked', is said to have an 'of morality' bent, just as the subject's act, denoted by the copular verb 'raved', is said to have an 'about the trip' bent. In exactly the same way, the complement identifies the bent of the subject's act with an -ing ending noun:
Without the direction-naming service of the nouns 'fishing' and 'dancing', the copular verbs 'went' and 'go' would not be capable of denoting a specific activity.
4. The complement names the context of the subject's act.
In this sentence:
there is no activity at all. There is instead a locating of the subject 'the comment' in an uttered-in-jest and an uttered-on-the-spur-of-the-moment context. It is clear in these sentences that the point made about the subject 'the comment' is not that it perpetrated an act. The point is that the act was perpetrated in a particular context. That context is named by the noun phrases 'in jest' and 'on the spur of the moment':
5. The complement names the content of the subject's act.
In the sentence:
the noun-phrase 'that there will be a storm' names the content of the act 'predicted' of the subject 'the bushman'. It was an act of storm-prediction. The other sentences on the grid also have compound-noun templates like 'storm-prediction': 'war-prophecy', 'revenge-threat', 'nonsense-talk'.
6. The complement names the purpose of the subject's act.
are all too easily mistaken for verb sentences in which 'live to please' is the verb phrase, 'I' the subject, and 'you' the object. However, that the subject does not act upon the object is made clear in their passive-voice cast:
Nothing attests more clearly than this cast that 'to please you' and 'to warn him' are noun phrases. And the 'why' component of both sentences attests to the purpose-naming role of the noun phrases. Purpose-naming roles are performed also by 'for'-headed noun phrases, as the grid shows:
7. The subject and complement depict their genitive relationship
In the sentence:
there is no activity. There is only the depiction of a genitive relationship between the subject 'the soldiers' and the noun complement 'orders'. The relationship depicted here has the meaning-template the soldiers' orders. In the other sentence on the grid, the meaning template is the child's doll.
8. The complement joins the copular verb to describe the subject
In both these sentences:
there are the predicate-adjective complements 'crisp', 'lyrical' and 'indignant'. Being predicate adjectives, they necessarily describe the noun subject 'the chicken' and pronoun subject 'he'. In neither sentence is the subject described by the predicate adjective alone. That is, the subject 'the chicken' is not described merely as 'crisp'; it is described as 'crisp fried'. And the subject 'he' is not described only as 'lyrical'; it is described as 'waxed lyrical' and 'waxed indignant'. In this sense, the copular verb is part of the description that a predicate-adjective complement makes of the subject.
What's it all for?
Why do we need to know about the three basic-sentence procedures 'verb basic sentence', 'copula basic sentence' and 'copular-verb basic sentence' and their habits? The good reason is that we cannot know how the parts of sentences work to make sense if we do not know what those parts are. Each of the basic-sentence procedures raises a subject, but each has a characteristic way of saying something about it. The ability to understand those ways is the first and the essential step in learning to analyse sentences. And it is only by analysing sentences that we are able to determine whether they are soundly constructed and therefore competent to make unambiguous sense.
Styles of the independent sentence
There are only four styles of sentences that make statements. These styles are infinitely accommodating and flexible. They do not limit our self-expression any more than does the fact that all our reasoning procedures are either inductive or deductive. (People who think they can reason 'laterally' are kidding themselves!) It is a writer's way of thinking about what he wants to say that determines the style in which each of his basic sentences will extend their scope for saying something.
The following is a sample of the four sentence styles. The basic sentence in each is underlined, and the verb, copula or copular in each is rendered in bold italics:
The simple sentence is any basic sentence. It is 'simple' because no complex or compound operations happens in it. A few inter-planted adverbs and adjectives do not make a complex sentence of it.
The book is a justifiably angry polemic.
This is a copula basic sentence in which the subject 'book' is assigned the definition 'a polemic' by the copula 'is'. The adjective phrase 'justifiably angry' describes the noun 'polemic'.
The complex sentence is formed when a basic sentence is embedded by phrases with a variety of syntactic functions.
Reopening their battle on the eve of the election, they warned that all candidates will be challenged to oppose the proposed defence cuts.
This complex sentence has a copular-verb basic sentence that specifies the content of the act 'warned' of the subject 'they' with the noun phrase 'that all candidates will be challenged to oppose the cuts'.
The compound sentence conjoins two or more simple sentences by means of logical operators.
It is an annoyance that their writers play historian because there is no more in these stories than ordinary romance.
This compound sentence contains:
(i) a copula basic sentence in which copula 'is' directs the noun phrase 'an annoyance that their writers play historian' to occupy the vacant subject 'It'.
This is compounded by the logical operator because to:
(ii) the copula basic sentence in which the copula 'is' directs the noun phrase 'no more than romance' to occupy the vacant subject 'there'.
A composite sentence is made up of several sentences that are capable of being spliced by commas.
We insist on fresh vegetables, they like strong spicing, their children will eat only chips, so choosing a restaurant is always a problem.
This sentence contains:
(i) a copular-verb basic sentence in which the noun phrase 'on vegetables' locates the direction of the act 'insist' of the subject 'We'.
This is spliced to:
(ii) a verb basic sentence in which the subject 'They' perpetrates the act denoted by 'like' upon the object 'spicing'.
This is spliced to:
(iii) a verb basic sentence in which the subject 'children' perpetrates the act denoted by 'will eat' upon the object 'chips'.
This is spliced by a comma and 'so' to:
(iv) a copula basic sentence in which the copula 'is' assigns the definition 'a problem' to the noun-phrase subject 'choosing a restaurant'.
The dependent sentence
The dependent sentence does not construct its own subject-object/complement unit. It borrows that unit, and the sense it makes, from the independent sentence that precedes it. The dependent sentence is a staple feature of texts that represent dialogue:
Both the sentences 'I know' and 'Yes' depend for their sense on the sentences that precedes them: It is only because the sentence 'Margaret was married yesterday' precedes it that 'I know' can make the sense 'I know that Margaret was married yesterday'. And it is only because the sentence 'You will miss her' precedes it that 'Yes' can make the sense 'I will miss her'.
The next sentence is not a model of the basic sentence: 'The tall girl'. Yet it raises the subject 'girl' and describes her as 'tall': Doing this, it should be acknowledged as a copula basic sentence. But it is not: The description is not effected by the copula: The adjective 'tall' is an attributive adjective, not a predicate adjective. Given its text, this sentence reveals itself to be the verb basic sentence 'The tall girl is flying to the moon tomorrow':
The dependent sentence is in no way an inferior sentence. In some texts it is much more appropriate than the independent sentence. Indeed, the writer or speaker who uses independent sentences in contexts that prefer dependent ones is irritating enough to provoke protest along these lines: